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Frequently Asked Questions


What is MotoCAP?

MotoCAP, or the Motorcycle Clothing Assessment Program, is a consumer information program designed to provide riders with scientifically-based information on the relative protection and breathability on a range of motorcycle protective jackets, pants and gloves available in Australia and New Zealand.

Who are the MotoCAP member organisations?

MotoCAP is run by a consortium of government agencies, private organisations and motorcycle stakeholders. Current members are:

  • Transport for NSW
  • State Insurance Regulatory Authority (SIRA)
  • Victorian Department of Transport
  • Transport Accident Commission (TAC)
  • Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR)
  • Motor Accident Insurance Commission (MAIC)
  • Lifetime Support Authority (LSA)
  • Road Safety Commission
  • Department of State Growth
  • Australian Motorcycle Council
  • Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC).

Does the MotoCAP test laboratory have Nata accreditation?

Yes, the MotoCAP test laboratory is recognised by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) as an accredited testing facility, achieving compliance with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.


How do you identify which products to test?

Products tested for MotoCAP are selected by conducting market surveillance to generate lists of each category of protective motorcycle clothing sold in Australia and New Zealand. Products are classified by type and material (e.g. leather jackets, textile jackets, denim pants, etc.). A computer program is used to randomly select products for testing from each class relative to their proportion in the overall market.

Test garments are then randomly selected from stock by MotoCAP technicians to ensure test specimens represent those available to the general public.

Manufacturers and importers are also able to commission MotoCAP to test their garments.

I’m interested in a particular product that doesn’t have a rating yet. What can I do?

If you want a product rated, we suggest you contact the manufacturer or importer and request that they commission a MotoCAP rating of that product.

How much of the market is covered by MotoCAP?

MotoCAP aims to test a minimum of 10 percent of the clothing market through random selection of gear available each year. With typical turnover of products in store, this means that at least 25 percent of products on the market should currently have a rating. This will further increase with time. Manufacturers and importers of gear may also commission MotoCAP to test their products.

Why aren’t boots rated?

Boots are not included in the initial roll out of MotoCAP but may be tested in the future.


What is tested in the protection rating?

MotoCAP tests the materials and construction of garments on the three key factors necessary to protect a rider from injury:  impact abrasion resistance, seam strength (burst), and impact energy absorption.

Abrasion-resistant materials are essential to protect your skin and muscles when you slide on the road. Seams and fastenings must remain intact as abrasion resistance is only effective if the garment holds together during a crash. Impact protectors, or body armour, are also required for the most exposed parts of the body (shoulders, elbows, hips and knees), which are most at risk from direct impact forces in a crash. Further details on our test methods are available in testing explained.

Are textile garments tested differently to those made from leather?

No. All garments of the same type (jackets, pants or gloves) are tested using the same test methods enabling comparison of their protection and breathability regardless of the materials they are made from. For example, a pair of denim pants with a three-star safety rating will have an equivalent level of protection as a pair of leather pants with a three-star safety rating.

WHY DO YOU TEST FOR Breathability?

Protective clothing can be uncomfortable in hot conditions because the materials used tend to have low vapour permeability, which prevents a rider’s sweat evaporating. The key for thermal comfort is for clothing to be breathable, allowing the body to expel excess heat.

The evaporation of sweat is how the body maintains a stable core temperature. If sweat cannot escape, the level of humidity within the garment will increase, restricting the loss of excess body heat. Even relatively small increases in core body temperature can result in physiological heat strain with potential safety consequences for riders including distraction, fatigue, mood change, and reduced levels of attention and alertness.

What does the Breathability rating measure?

MotoCAP tests for dry heat insulation and relative vapour permeability of garments. The breathability rating is based on how effectively a garment allows sweat to leave the body. Although the primary focus of breathability ratings is the suitability of the garment for use in a hot environment, breathability is also important in cold environments. Further details on the test methods are available in testing explained.

Why isn’t the water resistance rating included in the Breathability star rating?

The breathability rating is based on a garment’s ability to allow sweat to evaporate away from a rider’s skin by passing though the material into the environment. It is relevant in all weather conditions, hot and cold, and is necessary for the physiological management of core body temperature.

Water resistance is primarily concerned with protection from rain; it is a measure of a garment’s ability to prevent rainwater penetrating the material.

The two measures are different and could not be combined into a single rating scale. Many garments are not designed for water resistance, so including their performance in the breathability rating would unfairly penalise garments designed for dry weather use only.

The water resistance score is provided alongside breathability ratings to enable riders to make informed choices according to riding conditions and climate.

Are the garments tested by MotoCAP the same as those available in shops?

Yes. The garments used in MotoCAP tests are bought anonymously from stores and local online outlets available to riders across Australia and New Zealand. We test two of each jacket and pants and three pairs of gloves. Each test item is bought from a different outlet, with at least one of each being bought in a shop, and one online to ensure they come from different stock batches.



Riders wearing motorcycle protective clothing are less likely to be seriously injured and less likely to be hospitalised, but no clothing can guarantee full protection against all injuries. Motorcycle protective gear is designed to reduce the severity of the most common rider injuries, particularly from falling and sliding on the ground.

Effective gear will prevent or reduce the severity of abrasions, friction burns, cuts and lacerations, including having skin and muscle stripped from your body. The number of stars provides a comparison of how well specific garments resist the destructive forces in a crash.

What Level of protection is recommended for urban riding?

Abrasion risk is lower in an urban environment compared to a rural environment. Riding speeds tend to be lower and road surfaces less abrasive in an urban environment. Whilst abrasion risk reduces, impact risk increases as collisions with cars and roadside objects is more likely. 

When riding in an urban environment, it is recommended that the gear worn has a two-star or better protection rating. Ensure that gear worn in an urban environment is fitted with knee, hip, shoulder, elbow, knuckle and palm impact protectors.

What Level of protection is recommended for rural riding?

Abrasion risk is higher in a rural environment compared to an urban environment. Riding speeds tend to be higher and almost all rural roads are chip seal. Chip seal roads are four and a half times more abrasive than asphalt, raising the abrasion risk in a crash.

When riding in a rural environment, it is recommended that the gear worn has three-star or better protection rating. To obtain three-stars for protection, a garment must have an abrasion rating of three out of ten or better.


The number of stars for protection indicates how well a garment will perform in a crash, but riders should consider all the information provided by MotoCAP before deciding which garment best suits their needs. Depending on your riding needs, it will be a balance between protection, thermal comfort and water penetration. Remember that being too hot or wet may affect your riding safety and increase the risk of crashing.


    Is there a minimum standard of protection that all motorcycle gear complies with?

    No. Motorcycle clothing sold in Australia is not required to comply with a minimum standard of protection.

    Is MotoCAP going to be a mandatory standard?

    There are no plans to make the MotoCAP testing a mandatory standard in Australia or New Zealand.

    How does MotoCAP compare with the Canstar rating of motorcycle garments?

    The Canstar rating is based on market research to determine public perceptions about particular brands of motorcycle clothing on a range of factors including their protection and comfort. The ratings are based on opinion rather than scientific evidence.

    The MotoCAP rating is based on tests conducted in controlled laboratory conditions and based on established standards. The ratings provide objective, repeatable results that may be used to compare relative performance of various garments. Discrepancies between Canstar and MotoCAP demonstrate that public perception may not be a reliable indicator of actual clothing performance.

    How does MotoCAP compare with the European Standard?

    MotoCAP uses the same tests as those used in the European Standards EN 13595-1:2002, EN 13594:2002 and EN 1621-1:2012. While European standards use a simple pass/fail criterion, MotoCAP uses the actual test scores to scale star ratings so that consumers can make an informed decision by comparing similar products on their relative performance.

    MotoCAP is unique in also providing a breathability rating, which is not included in the European standards for protective motorcycle clothing, but will help riders find clothing that is suited to their climate and riding conditions.

    Will changes to the European standard affect Motocap?

    The adoption of a new standard for motorcycle clothing in Europe will not change the tests used as the basis for MotoCAP testing for the foreseeable future. These tests were adopted because they were developed and validated with data from real world crashes.

    Why is MotoCAP required now that there is a tiered European Standard (EN 17092)?

    The European standard EN 17092 has been developed for European riding conditions. The EN 17092 abrasion test is based on asphalt that is the predominant road type in Europe. It is a European standard for European riders.

    MotoCAP is a star rating system that uses an abrasion test which has been scientifically shown to behave the same as Australian and New Zealand chip seal roads. Chip seal is four and a half times more abrasive than asphalt. MotoCAP provides advice for Australian and New Zealand riders about gear that will protect them when riding in Australia or New Zealand. It also has relevance to riders in other countries where chip seal type road surfaces are encountered.

    What is the difference between the Darmstadt abrasion test used in EN 17092 and the Cambridge abrasion test used by MotoCAP?

    The Darmstadt impact abrasion test machine is designed to simulate garments sliding across an asphalt surface, whereas the Cambridge machine simulates rougher surfaces. The Darmstadt machine replicates the European road network that is predominantly smooth asphalt.

    Whilst most urban areas in larger cities and towns in Australia and New Zealand do have asphalt surfaces, almost all rural roads are chip seal. Chip seal roads are four and a half times more abrasive than asphalt. Recent on-road trials in Australia and New Zealand have confirmed that testing on the Cambridge machine accurately simulates sliding on chip seal road surfaces. These trials have validated the Cambridge impact abrasion test as the more appropriate method for Australian and New Zealand motorcycle clothing, and addresses the most challenging road surface clothing might encounter, as well as less abrasive city streets; hence why it is used by MotoCAP.

    Why are some EN 17092 garments performing poorly on MotoCAP?

    Testing has identified 45 garments certified to EN 17092 that have received half or one star for protection in MotoCAP. The lower ratings are due to the different requirements for abrasion resistance testing in EN 17092. The European standard EN 17092 uses the Darmstadt abrasion test method and a concrete abrasion pad which is less abrasive than most Australian and New Zealand roads, and even some European roads. MotoCAP uses the Cambridge abrasion test method (specified in EN 13595-1:2002) which has been scientifically shown to perform like Australian and New Zealand chip seal roads.

    Not all EN 17092 garments perform poorly, with testing identifying that garments certified to EN 17092 can achieve three stars or better in MotoCAP. EN 17092 does not, however, enable identification of superior performance garments, which it groups with others within broad performance classifications.  

    The European standard EN 17092 now has five levels of protection so how is it different to MotoCAP?

    The European standard EN 17092 offers five levels of protection (AAA, AA, A, B and C); however, in reality there are only three levels: AAA, AA and A. Level B is the same protection levels as Level A without impact protectors. Level C specifies separate garments that hold impact protectors. Level C garments are typically worn by motocross riders, usually under their riding clothes, and are generally not relevant to road riders.

    A buyer of an EN 17092 garment is not able to tell by how much the garment has passed the minimum requirements of the certification level provided. In contrast, MotoCAP tells them precisely how well a garment performs, with the stars providing five levels of protection. The individual scores for abrasion, burst and impact in MotoCAP inform riders how well the garment performs in each element of protection. MotoCAP provides more information to riders about the gear’s performance.

    Are stars better than standards?

    The European standard EN 17092 is a pass or fail standard that supports legislation with which manufacturer’s must comply in order to sell motorcycle clothing in Europe. It only tells a buyer if the garment has passed a minimum level of protection. It does not tell the buyer by how much a garment passed each of the test criteria.

    MotoCAP is a star rating system where products are tested and ranked according to their precise protection and breathability capabilities. It enables riders to make the choice of the level of protection they wish to ride in. It provides ranking and scores for each of the test criteria, increasing the information available to the rider.

    Is the gear tested by EN 17092 the same as that tested by MotoCAP?

    The gear tested for the European standard EN17092 is provided by the manufacturer. The product should remain the same between the certified and production garments.

    MotoCAP buys all the test garments from stores in Australia and New Zealand. These are the same garments that are purchased and worn by riders. Riders can be confident that what they buy is the same as what was tested in MotoCAP.


    Is it okay to buy my gear online?

    MotoCAP recommends trying on gear in a store before you buy to ensure it fits and is comfortable to wear in a riding position according to your type of motorcycle. This also allows you to check that the impact protectors are the correct size, fit over the relevant part of your body and cannot be moved out of position in a crash.

    If you decide to purchase online, check the returns policy in case the gear is not a good fit.

    How do I decide if my gear is a good fit?

    Clothing is generally made to a series of sizes, from small to large, but the actual fit of a garment will vary according to your shape and different brands.

    Try gear on over the clothing you would typically wear while riding, and ensure you are comfortable in the riding position and can walk, bend over, climb stairs and crouch comfortably. Check for fabric bunching behind the knees and in your elbows, as this will cause pressure and discomfort while riding.

    Clothing that is too tight in any area will become uncomfortable and may restrict blood flow causing loss of feeling. Clothing that is too loose can billow and flap, which is not only a distraction, but can also make you tired, and may cause chilling by forcing warm air away from your body. Check for straps that allow the fit of garments to be adjusted to your body. Straps should be on the inside of arms or legs or under the arms on jackets to avoid the areas where they would be most exposed and torn off in a crash.

    A jacket must fit snugly across your shoulders to ensure the impact protectors stay in place. However, for some riders a jacket that fits their shoulders will have sleeves that are too long, short or wide, so the elbow protectors are not in the correct place or will not stay in place, in which case you should choose a different jacket. Similarly, avoid pants that are too loose or ride low on your hips, as these can be dragged down or off in a crash. Check that the impact protectors fit over your hips and knees and cannot be pulled out of position.

    Fit is also important for gloves. Make a fist to ensure material does not bunch in the palm or fingers. Check that you can operate all the controls freely. There should be room at the tip of each finger when you are gripping the handlebar. Check that you can adjust your helmet while wearing the gloves. Gloves should have fastenings at the wrists that will prevent the gloves from being pulled off. If they can be pulled off your hands, don’t buy them.

    Is second hand clothing acceptable?

    Second hand clothing may be perfectly fine to wear, but check carefully for crash damage or signs of degradation. Look for scuffing, tears or damage that may have been caused from contact with a road surface. Also look for signs of aging such as material discolouration and discoloured or damaged seams that may reduce protection levels of the clothing. Always replace the impact protectors with the best quality you can find. Impact protectors are like helmets and can suffer from compression damage that is not visible to the naked eye, but will reduce protection.

    I find it hard to find suitable women’s clothing. Should I wear men’s gear instead?

    The choices for women are limited, so if it fits, then it is fine – or just a matter of fashion. The same basic rules apply with either women’s or men’s clothing: make sure that impact protectors can be adjusted into position to cover shoulders, elbows, knees and hips. Look for products that are designed to be versatile for different shaped bodies by providing adjustable straps. Straps should be on the inside of arms or legs or under the arms on jackets to avoid the areas where they would be most exposed and torn off in crash.

    Blurred Motorcyclist

    The testing process

    Find out how MotoCAP tests gear for ratings.